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Loxosceles

What are Loxosceles spp. Common name? Distribution? Venom mechanism?Clinical effects?  Severe toxicity? Treatment?

  • Brown recluse
  • Loxosceles venom is a heterogenous medely of proteins including: sphingomyelinases, phospholipases, astacin-like metalloproteases, and the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) peptides, serine proteases, serpins, hyaluronidases.
  • Typically Loxoscelism is limited to local tissue necrosis, often patients will mistake an abscess for a bite of this spider.
  • Mild systemic signs include: fever, flu-like symptoms, nausea/vomiting, disseminated rash
  • Severe toxicity: intravascular hemolysis, hemoglubinuria or hematuria, DIC, hypotension, pulmonary edema
  • Supportive care, wound care, steroids are controversial.

PMID:31248109